Operators
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Truck Driver

Any vehicle operator who is responsible for transporting paving materials. Common transportation routes include traveling from a production facility to the paving site, or hauling materials away from the site to another location for disposal.
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Construction

Construction quality is crucial to the long-term pavement performance. Construction factors such as surface preparation, placement, joint construction and compaction/consolidation have an overwhelming effect on pavement performance, which cannot be ignored or compensated for in mix or structural design. Other construction considerations such as plant operations, mix transport and quality control procedures can also directly … Read more »

Figure 2. Loading PCC for truck mixing.

Truck Mixed PCC

Truck mixed PCC is usually proportioned by batching the separate ingredients directly into the concrete mixing truck.  The ingredients are usually charged in a certain order to ensure good mixing of all ingredients.  Although the specific order depends upon local practice, mixing plant procedures and possibly job specifications, a typical charging order is shown in … Read more »

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Rigid Pavement Truck Types

There are two basic truck types used for mix transport: Truck mixer.  Truck mixers, use a truck-mounted rotating drum that is capable of mixing (if necessary) and agitating the ready mixed PCC. Non-agitating truck.  Non-agitating trucks are not able to mix or agitate their payload and usually consist of end dump, bottom dump or side-dump … Read more »

Figure 1. Typical truck mixer.

PCC Truck Mixer

Truck mixers are the most common mode of PCC transport. They consist of a truck-mounted drum that rotates on an inclined axis. A typical mixing truck (Figures 1 and 2) uses a 6.9 – 9.2 m3 (9 – 12 yd3) mixing drum, the size being limited due to gross vehicle weight of the loaded truck. … Read more »

Figure 1. Placement over dowel bars in an intersection.

PCC Placement

PCC can be placed directly in the desired location by truck or truck attachments (see Figures 1 and 2), or can be fed into a placement machine for more accurate and even placement.  PCC that is moved excessively once it has been unloaded from the transport truck will tend to segregate (become less homogeneous). During the … Read more »

Figure 4. Live bottom truck.

Live Bottom Truck

Live bottom (or flo-boy) dump trucks (Figures 1-4) have a conveyor system at the bottom of their bed to unload their payload. HMA is discharged out the back of the bed without raising the bed (Video 1). Live bottom trucks are more expensive to use and maintain because of the conveyor system but they also … Read more »

Figure 2. End dump truck receiving milled pavement from a milling machine.

End Dump Truck

End dump trucks unload their payload by raising the front end and letting the payload slide down the bottom of the bed and out the back through the tailgate (Figure 1, 2 and Video 1). End dump trucks are the most popular transport vehicle type because they are plentiful, maneuverable and versatile. Use for HMA … Read more »

Figure 2. Windrow made by emptying a bottom dump truck

Bottom Dump Truck

Bottom dump trucks, most often used for HMA in more rural settings, (Figure 1) unload their payload by opening gates on the bottom of the bed. Internal bed walls are sloped to direct the entire payload out through the opened gates. Discharge rates can be controlled by the degree of gate opening and the speed … Read more »

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