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The Pavement Interactive functions both as a collaboration space and a ready reference.

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Concrete Paver Operator

Any worker who operates a concrete paver or one of its attachments, such as a dowel bar installer.
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Construction Noise

Noise Basics Healthy humans can hear audible sound with a range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz with a maximum intensity at 3,000 Hz. (Hz = Hertz, or cycles per second.) Frequencies below 20 Hz are called “infrasound” and above 20,000 Hz “ultrasound.” The numerical magnitude of a sound typically expressed as sound pressure level … Read more »

Figure 2. Side tie bar inserter.

Tie Bar Placement

Tie bars are typically placed after PCC placement either by hand or using a tie bar inserter attachment (slipform paving only). When one lane at a time is paved, tie bars are inserted at mid-slab depth and bent back until the adjacent lane is ready to be paved (see Figure 1). On slipform pavers, tie … Read more »

Figure 4. Rigid Pavement Slab (Surface Course) Thickness

PCC Pavement

Rigid pavements are so named because the pavement structure deflects very little under loading due to the high modulus of elasticity of their surface course. A rigid pavement structure is typically composed of a PCC surface course built on top of either (1) the subgrade or (2) an underlying base course. Because of its relative … Read more »

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Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement

Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP, see Figure 1) uses contraction joints and reinforcing steel to control cracking. Transverse joint spacing is longer than that for JPCP and typically ranges from about 7.6 m (25 ft.) to 15.2 m (50 ft.). Temperature and moisture stresses are expected to cause cracking between joints, hence reinforcing steel or … Read more »

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Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement

Continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP, see Figure 1) does not require any contraction joints. Transverse cracks are allowed to form but are held tightly together with continuous reinforcing steel. Research has shown that the maximum allowable design crack width is about 0.5 mm (0.02 inches) to protect against spalling and water penetration (CRSI, 1996[1]). Cracks … Read more »

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Construction

Construction quality is crucial to the long-term pavement performance. Construction factors such as surface preparation, placement, joint construction and compaction/consolidation have an overwhelming effect on pavement performance, which cannot be ignored or compensated for in mix or structural design. Other construction considerations such as plant operations, mix transport and quality control procedures can also directly … Read more »

Figure 22. Curing seal applied by a hand-operated sprayer.

Fixed Form Paving

In fixed form paving, side forms are used to hold fresh PCC in place at the proper grade and alignment until it sets and hardens. These forms may also serve as tracks for various pieces of placing and finishing equipment. Fixed form paving is most appropriate for small jobs (see Figure 1), complicated geometry pavements … Read more »

Figure 6. Dowel baskets placed on a lean concrete base in advance of PCC placement.

Dowel Bar Placement

Dowel bars can be placed either before PCC placement by using dowel baskets, or after PCC placement by using an automatic dowel bar inserter. Their placement is crucial to proper joint load transfer. Skewed, shallow or excessively corroded dowels can fail causing faulting and/or cracking at the joint. Dowel Bar Preparation Dowel bars must be … Read more »

Figure 3. Placer/spreader receiving PCC from an end dump truck and placing it in front of the PCC paver.

Slipform Paving

Slipform paving is defined as a process used to consolidate, form into geometric shape and surface finish a PCC mass by pulling the forms continuously through and surrounding the plastic concrete mass. Slipform paving is most appropriate for larger jobs that require high production rates. Particular advantages of slipform paving are (ACPA, 1995[1]): Uses low-slump … Read more »

Figure 2. Reinforcing bar in place (white items are support chairs).

Reinforcing Steel Placement

Proper reinforcing steel placement is crucial to CRCP performance. CRCP failures are usually associated with insufficient reinforcement bar lapping, unconsolidated PCC around the steel, improper position of the steel in the slab and extreme hot weather during construction. In general, CRCP seems to be less forgiving of construction errors than other types of rigid pavement … Read more »

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